Published on Sat Apr 24 2021

A Review on C3I Systems' Security: Vulnerabilities, Attacks, and Countermeasures

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Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) system is a kind of system-of-system that integrates computing machines, sensors, and communication networks. C3I systems are increasingly used in critical civil and military operations for achieving information superiority, assurance, and operational efficacy. C3I systems are no exception to the traditional systems facing widespread cyber-threats. However, the sensitive nature of the application domain (e.g., military operations) of C3I systems makes their security a critical concern. For instance, a cyber-attack on military installations can have detrimental impacts on national security. Therefore, in this paper, we review the state-of-the-art on the security of C3I systems. In particular, this paper aims to identify the security vulnerabilities, attack vectors, and countermeasures for C3I systems. We used the well-known systematic literature review method to select and review 77 studies on the security of C3I systems. Our review enabled us to identify 27 vulnerabilities, 22 attack vectors, and 62 countermeasures for C3I systems. This review has also revealed several areas for future research and identified key lessons with regards to C3I systems' security.