Testing the equivalence principle on cosmological scales using the odd multipoles of galaxy cross-power spectrum and bispectrum
One of the cornerstones of general relativity is the equivalence principle. However, the validity of the equivalence principle has only been established on solar system scales for standard matter fields; this result cannot be assumed to hold for the non-standard matter fields that dominate the gravitational dynamics on cosmological scales. Here we show how the equivalence principle may be tested on cosmological scales for non-standard matter fields using the odd multipoles of the galaxy cross-power spectrum and bispectrum. This test makes use of the imprint on the galaxy cross-power spectrum and bispectrum by the parity-violating general relativistic deformations of the past-light cone, and assumes that galaxies can be treated as test particles that are made of baryons and cold dark matter. This assumption leads to a non-zero galaxy-baryon relative velocity if the equivalence principle does not hold between baryons and dark matter. We show that the relative velocity can be constrained to be less than 28% of the galaxy velocity using the cross-power spectrum of the HI intensity mapping/Hα galaxy survey and the bispectrum of the Hα galaxy survey.