Published on Tue Sep 06 2016

Review of the Fingerprint Liveness Detection (LivDet) competition series: 2009 to 2015

Luca Ghiani, David A. Yambay, Valerio Mura, Gian Luca Marcialis, Fabio Roli, Stephanie A. Schuckers

Presentation attack detection distinguishes between live and fake biometric traits. The LivDet competitions have been hosted in 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015. Participants have grown from four to the most recent thirteen submissions for Fingerprint Part 1. The continuous increase of competitors demonstrates a growing interest in the topic.

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Abstract

A spoof attack, a subset of presentation attacks, is the use of an artificial replica of a biometric in an attempt to circumvent a biometric sensor. Liveness detection, or presentation attack detection, distinguishes between live and fake biometric traits and is based on the principle that additional information can be garnered above and beyond the data procured by a standard authentication system to determine if a biometric measure is authentic. The goals for the Liveness Detection (LivDet) competitions are to compare software-based fingerprint liveness detection and artifact detection algorithms (Part 1), as well as fingerprint systems which incorporate liveness detection or artifact detection capabilities (Part 2), using a standardized testing protocol and large quantities of spoof and live tests. The competitions are open to all academic and industrial institutions which have a solution for either softwarebased or system-based fingerprint liveness detection. The LivDet competitions have been hosted in 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015 and have shown themselves to provide a crucial look at the current state of the art in liveness detection schemes. There has been a noticeable increase in the number of participants in LivDet competitions as well as a noticeable decrease in error rates across competitions. Participants have grown from four to the most recent thirteen submissions for Fingerprint Part 1. Fingerprints Part 2 has held steady at two submissions each competition in 2011 and 2013 and only one for the 2015 edition. The continuous increase of competitors demonstrates a growing interest in the topic.

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Fake fingerprint representation pose a severe threat for fingerprint based authentication systems. Despite advances in presentation attack detection technologies, many fingerprint scanners are still susceptible to physical fake fingerprint representation.
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Fingerprint-based biometric systems have experienced a large development in the last years. Despite their many advantages, they are still vulnerable to presentation attacks (PAs) Current PAD methods still face difficulties detecting PAIs built from unknown materials.
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