Published on Fri Jul 23 2021

The GUAPOS project II. A comprehensive study of peptide-like bond molecules

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Peptide-like bond molecules, which can take part to the formation of proteins in a primitive Earth environment, have been detected up to now only towards a few sources. We present a study of HNCO, HC(O)NH, CHNCO, CHC(O)NH, CHNHCHO, CHCHNCO, NHC(O)NH, NHC(O)CN, and HOCHC(O)NH towards the hot core G31.41+0.31. We have used the spectrum obtained from the ALMA 3mm spectral survey GUAPOS, with an angular resolution of 1.2"1.2" (4500 au), to derive column densities of all the molecular species, together with other 0.2"0.2" (750 au) ALMA observations to study the morphology of HNCO, HC(O)NH and CHC(O)NH. We have detected HNCO, HC(O)NH, CHNCO, CHC(O)NH, and CHNHCHO, for the first time all together outside the Galactic center. We have obtained molecular fractional abundances with respect to H from 10 down to a few 10 and with respect to CHOH from 10 to 410. From the comparison with other sources, we find that regions in an earlier stage of evolution, such as pre-stellar cores, show abundances at least two orders of magnitude lower than those in hot cores, hot corinos or shocked regions. Moreover, molecular abundance ratios towards different sources are found to be consistent between them within 1 order of magnitude, regardless of the physical properties (e.g. different masses and luminosities), or the source position throughout the Galaxy. New correlations between pairs of molecular abundances have also been found. These results suggest that all these species are formed on grain surfaces in early evolutionary stages of molecular clouds, and that they are subsequently released back to the gas-phase through thermal desorption or shock-triggered desorption.